Verbal nouns in Turkish

Verbal nouns in Turkish

In the dictionary, all verbs in Turkish end with the stem –mek or –mak, according to vowel harmony. To make a verbal noun out of a verb, we usually take off the –mek or –mak, and add –me or –ma – in effect merely removing the k at...
The Present Tense in Turkish

The Present Tense in Turkish

There are two main present tenses in Turkish: –iyor and –er/ir. –İyor is a present continuous tense, like “is doing”. The -İ changes according to vowel harmony but the o never changes, so all additional vowels added onto –iyor harmonise on that...
Expressing ability and inability in Turkish

Expressing ability and inability in Turkish

To change a verb to indicate ability or inability, add –ebil or –eme respectively before the tense ending. The –i in -ebil does not change in accordance with vowel harmony, so all additional elements harmonise on –i. However, –eme can...
Expressing possession in Turkish (Part 2)

Expressing possession in Turkish (Part 2)

Please make sure you have read Part 1 of Expressing possession in Turkish. A different form of expressing possession in Turkish comes when a noun is used to modify another noun. In that case, the third person possessive marker on the first noun is dropped, but the...
Expressing possession in Turkish (Part 1)

Expressing possession in Turkish (Part 1)

Possession in English is dealt with in two ways: you can say “the Queen of England” or “England’s Queen”. In Turkish, both these would be translated in the same way: “İngiltere’nin kraliçesi”. Unlike in the English “England’s Queen”, where only the person or thing...